The focus is on measures that lead to economic diversification, which will also reduce emissions, but which does not set a reduction target. The INDC of Qatar. The EU and its member states are among the nearly 190 parties to the Paris Agreement. The EU formally ratified the agreement on 5 October 2016, allowing it to enter into force on 4 November 2016. In order for the agreement to enter into force, at least 55 countries representing at least 55% of global emissions had to file their ratification instruments. While the agreement has been welcomed by many, including French President Francois Hollande and UN Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon, criticism has also emerged. James Hansen, a former NASA scientist and climate change expert, expressed anger that most of the agreement is made up of “promises” or goals, not firm commitments.  He called the Paris talks a fraud with “nothing, only promises” and believed that only a generalized tax on CO2 emissions, which is not part of the Paris agreement, would force CO2 emissions down fast enough to avoid the worst effects of global warming.  A 15% reduction in emissions below a business as usual scenario by 2030 and a long-term carbon neutrality target by 2050. Implementation depends on the provision of international support. Liberia`s INDC. A 9.8% reduction from 1990 to 2030 levels. Serbia also included a section on losses and damage – extreme weather and weather have cost the country $5 billion since 2000.
The adaptation measures implemented between 2000 and 2015 would have cost about $68 million, it added. This is INDC. An unconditional reduction of 3% in the level of usual cases by 2030 or 23% depends on international aid. The latter corresponds to a 3% reduction from the 1990 level. lists a number of measures, including ending illegal deforestation by 2020 and increasing the share of renewable energy to 79% by 2030, up from 39% in 2010. This could be increased to 81% with international aid. It also focuses on water. Capitalism denounces capitalism as “a system of death” and rejects carbon markets. proposes to allocate the carbon budget among countries, 89% of which is devoted to developing countries. The INDC of Bolivia. A 25% reduction in emissions from 2010 to 2030 levels, which depends on favourable and predictable support, climate finance mechanisms and “correction of the failure of existing market mechanisms”.